Military, Army, Navy and Air Force
AUSTRALIA - A LAND FIT FOR HEROES - NSW 1916-1939
A website dedicated to the memory of Soldier Settlement in NSW. Vast tracts of our state were settled by returned servicemen and women in the aftermath of the Great War: the rural communities they established lie at the heartland of regional Australia.
AUSTRALIA - ABORIGINAL PEOPLE IN THE VICTORIAN COLONIAL FORCES
Helpful site for looking for Aboriginal ancestors resources in Victoria, Australia - Victorian Native Police, Aboriginal Trackers , World War 1 and WW2.
AUSTRALIA - ANZAC
They Went with Songs to the Battle- The Anzac Tribute site, Stories of the Gallipoli Campaign, also on this site there are names and details of 3219 soldiers buried in 26 Cemeteries at Gallipoli plus 6393 who are listed on Memorials.
AUSTRALIA - ANZACS SIGHT AND SOUNDS WW1
Sights and Sounds of the First World War was developed in partnership between Nga Taonga Sound and Vision (NTSV) and the National Film and Sound Archive of Australia (NFSA). The site has been built to commemorate the centenary of Australia and New Zealand’s involvement in World War One by showcasing audio-visual material related to the war held by both archives.
AUSTRALIA - AUSTRALIA'S REDCOAT REGIMENTS
In the new colony of Australia the Regiments were assigned as convict guards, and were used to settle uprisings such as Castle Hill, the Eureka Stockade and many smaller riots, they were also responsible for the capture and return of escaped convicts. The Regiments were on some occasions, set the task of exploration. The last of these men left Australian shores in 1913.
AUSTRALIA - AUSTRALIAN ANZACS IN THE GREAT WAR 1914-1918
The AIF database is drawn from a range of official sources, including personal files on the National Archives website, and Embarkation and Nominal Rolls on the Australian War Memorial website. A number of errors were introduced into these records at the time of their compilation, and when these are identified they are corrected on the AIF Project database.
AUSTRALIA - AUSTRALIAN NAVY
Search the site to find lists of all the world's and Australian navy ships from the nineteenth century to the present day, with photos, histories and paintings on many of the ships.
AUSTRALIA - AUSTRALIANS AT WAR
The site designed to complement the Australians at War TV series, and dedicated to those Australians who served their nation over the past one hundred years.Through animated documentaries, video, audio and activities you can re-live some of the greatest events in our history, as seen through the eyes of the men and women who were there.
AUSTRALIA - AUSTRALIANS IN THE BOER WAR
The Australians in the Boer War Database Project marks the centenary of the participation by Australia in the Second Anglo-Boer War by making it easier for genealogists, numismatists, local historians and other researchers to locate source materials dealing with individual Australian participants.
AUSTRALIA - AUSTRALIANS ON THE WESTERN FRONT 1914 -1919
The aim of the Trail is to improve visitors’ understanding and appreciation of the achievements and sacrifices of Australians in the main theatre of conflict during the First World War. The Trail will link the sites of the most significant Australian battles of the war. It is being developed by the Australian Department of Veterans’ Affairs in partnership with local French and Belgian communities, councils and regional governments.
AUSTRALIA - AUSTRALIANS SERVING IN THE BOER WAR
The site is devoted to Australia's involvement in the Boer War in South Africa between 1899 and 1902. Has alphabetical lists of soldiers who served with Australian contingents in South Australia 1899-1902.
AUSTRALIA - BOER WAR MEMORIAL
Search for your military ancestors, memorials, medals and battle honours.
AUSTRALIA - DEFENCE HONOURS AND AWARDS
The site has a list of honours and awards with photographs and description of each award. They provide medallic recognition to current serving and discharged Australian Defence Force personnel and Defence civilians. Awards are issued from the Australian and Imperial honours and awards systems from World War One to current day.
AUSTRALIA - DEFENDING VICTORIA AUSTRALIA 1803-1919
Search Defending Victoria Australia's website for ancestors in the Victorian Colional Military and Naval Forces up to the Anglo- Boer War AIF, Australian Flying Corps and Nurses up to the end of World War 1.
AUSTRALIA - DISPLACE PERSONS DOWN UNDER
The website covers all known displace persons camps around Australia after WWII with the history of camps and the peoples in the camps. Many useful websites attached to web pages for the searching of your displace persons down under.
AUSTRALIA - KANGAROO MARCH
The Kangaroo March Committee is comprised of citizens who live adjacent to the route of the 1915 Kangaroo Recruiting March from Wagga Wagga to Campbelltown. The re-enactment of the Kangaroo March is a century old in September and October 2015. The re-enactment mission focuses on commemorating the historic event of the March, inspiring the current generations to achieve success in life as a reflection of the value derived from the WWI sacrifices and educating children on the history of the long and continuing fight for freedom.
AUSTRALIA - MONUMENT AUSTRALIA
The Monument Australia website is a historical and educational research site which records the public monuments and memorials in all Australian States and Territories under various themes. These public monuments and memorials were erected by a public desire to commemorate people or events.
AUSTRALIA - NATIONAL ARCHIVES OF AUSTRALIA
The National Archives holds mainly 20th century records created by the federal government since Federation in 1901.
AUSTRALIA - NATIONAL SERVICEMEN'S ASSOCIATION OF AUSTRALIA INC.
Search the Nominal Roll of 'Nashos' who served in the army,navy and air force between 1951-1972.
AUSTRALIA - NSW ANZAC CENTENARY
The site is hosted by State Records of NSW and contains records from the archives of the in evolvement of NSW in relationship to World War One. The site covers related articles under headings of remembrance, in service, home front, SRNSW Resources and more.
AUSTRALIA - QUEENSLAND - ADOPT A DIGGER PROJECT
Researching World War One Diggers and Nurses from Sunshine Coast Region of Queensland.
AUSTRALIA - REGISTER OF WAR MEMORIALS NSW
Search by memorial name, suburb, postcode and veteran names.
AUSTRALIA - THE AUSTRALIAN LIGHT HORSE STUDIES CENTRE
Through careful scholarship this site aims to provide people who have an interest in this particular phase of Australian history an ability to meet with the historical Light Horsemen and so gain a clear version of the life lead by these men, their families and the society in which they lived during the formative period from 1899 to 1920. It is through accurate commentary that these folk gain their honour and well deserved place within the Australian Story.
AUSTRALIA - THE AUSTRALIANS AT WAR FILM ARCHIVE
The Archive is an Australian Government initiative, commissioned through the Department of Veterans' Affairs. It is a unique, historical collection, a resource for everyone interested in Australia's wartime heritage.
AUSTRALIA - THE ENEMY AT HOME - GERMAN INTERNEES IN WWI
During World War One nearly 7000 so-called ‘enemy aliens’ were interned in camps in New South Wales. One was young Bavarian photographer Paul Dubotzki whose remarkable photographs record the experience of internment from 1915 to 1919. Holsworthy at Liverpool was one of these camps.
AUSTRALIA - THE SPIRITS OF GALLIPOLI PROJECT
The Spirits of Gallipoli project aims to provide details of sources, including references, books, newspapers, photographs and lists of AIF men kill and buried at Gallipoli during WWI.
AUSTRALIA - WESTERN AUSTRALIA - NOT JUST A NAME PROJECT
The primary purpose of this website is to give people, in Australia and beyond, access to the index of the 998 soldiers and two nurses whose names appear on WW1 Honour Rolls at Cottesloe, Mosman Park and Peppermint Grove. In 1914 these were referred to as Cottesloe and Cottesloe Beach.
AUSTRALIA - WESTERN AUSTRALIA - WWI SOLDIERS MEMORIAL CARDS
Contains online images of some WWI Western Australian soldiers. Included are 186 memorial cards of soldiers who died in action, of wounds or the Spanish flu. The photos have some biographical information.
AUSTRALIA - WORLD WAR TWO NOMINAL ROLL
The World War Two Nominal Roll honours the men and women who served in Australia's defence forces and the Merchant Navy during this WW2. It contains information from the service records of some one million individuals.
AUSTRALIA - WW2 REFUGEES TO AUSTRALIA
The site, by Tom Stiglmayer, lists migrants from Germany, Hungary, Russia, Ukraine, Latvia, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Romania. The index is arranged by year 1947-1966 with ships listed alphabetically. Each ships' list has names, nationality and reference.
AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND - DISCOVERING ANZACS
Explore a growing selection of government records about Australians and New Zealanders in World War I and the Boer War. Enhance a profile dedicated to the wartime journey of someone who served. Uncover the personal stories of service men and women through original archival records.
AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND - MILITARY AIRCRAFT SERIALS AND HISTORY
This site is devoted to providing as complete a record as possible of aircraft operated by the ADF and NZDF. Included where known are brief summaries of the history and current status of aircraft employed in Australian and New Zealand Military Service.
AUSTRALIAN - AIF PROJECT - ANZACS IN THE GREAT WAR 1914 - 1918
This project provides details on the 330,000 men and women who served overseas in the AIF 1914-1918.
AUSTRALIAN - IN THEIR HONOUR
In Their Honour is dedicated to the fine Australian service men and women who served in the Armed Forces from 1914 to 1949. Many of them sacrificed their lives for "King and country". Thousands did not come home to their families and were buried in War Graves in cemeteries across Europe and the Middle East.
AUSTRALIAN - NOMINAL ROLL - PRELIMINARY GULF WAR
This Preliminary Gulf War Nominal Roll, prepared by the Department of Veterans' Affairs in Canberra, lists Australian Defence Force personnel involved in that conflict. It includes all personnel involved in the hostilities and associated operations in the Persian Gulf from August 1990 to September 1991.
AUSTRALIAN - NOMINAL ROLL - VETERANS OF THE KOREAN WAR
The Nominal Roll of Australian Veterans of the Korean War honours and commemorates the men and women who served in the Royal Australian Navy, Australian Army and Royal Australian Air Force in Korea, or in the waters adjacent to Korea, during the conflict and after the ceasefire, between 27 June 1950 and 19 April 1956.
AUSTRALIAN - PICTORIAL WWI HONOUR ROLL
Photographs and biographical information on 28,961 AIF, Naval and Nurses who were killed during the First World War. It is not a complete list of Australians who were killed in the WW1 conflict.
AUSTRALIAN - THE AUSTRALIAN LIGHT HORSE ASSOCIATION
The site is dedicated to the Australian Light Horse Regiments, and the Light Horsemen who served their country in both war and peace, and contains both historical and current information on famous regiments and famous battles, as well as information on both ordinary soldiers and commanders, existing Military Units, current Historical Troops, and Light Horse Museums.
AUSTRALIAN - THE NOMINAL ROLLS OF VIETNAM VETERANS
The Nominal Roll of Vietnam Veterans lists approximately 61 000 men and women who served in the Royal Australian Navy (RAN), Australian Army and Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) in Vietnam, or in the waters adjacent to Vietnam, during the conflict between 23rd May 1962 and 29th April 1975. You can seek information on these members using the search function.
AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND - AMERICAN CIVIL WAR VETERANS
This website is a dedication to the Australian Union and Confederate Veterans of the American Civil War of 1861 – 1865. It has been created from numerous sources, government documents, research libraries and hundreds of pieces of information emailed in and donated by individuals from all over Australia and the United States; and includes work by individuals in both the “Sons of Confederate Veterans”, the “Sons of Union Veterans”, the “American Civil War Round Table of Queensland” the “American Civil of Round Table of Australia”, the late Roy Parker and others.
AUSTRALIAN WAR GRAVES PHOTOGRAPHIC ARCHIVE
The Australian War Graves Photographic Archive was begun in 2000, and is committed to procuring a digital photograph of every Australian War Grave and Memorial Commemoration; worldwide.
AUSTRALIAN WAR MEMORIAL
The Australian War Memorial has an extensive archive commemorating Australians who have died in war.
AUSTRALIAN WAR MEMORIAL - AUSTRALIANS AT WAR - UNIT HISTORIES
A wide variety of units of the navy, army and air force have served Australia in times of conflict. Here, you will find profiles of some of these.
BEGLIAN - BEGLIAN WAR DEAD REGISTER 1914-1918
Do you have questions about family, acquaintances, fellow-villagers and/or strangers who died during the first world war. Search for answers in the Belgian War Dead registry, the online database of the Institute for veterans. With original chips of fallen Beglian soldiers.
CANADA - CANADIAN MILITARY
Canada's military past, participation in major world conflicts, such as the two World Wars, the Korean War, and the more recent events in the Middle East. The site has also been created to highlight the role played by Canadians in smaller, lesser known conflicts, as well as countless peacekeeping missions around the globe, and to honour the men and women who have worn Canadian military uniforms throughout our nation's proud history
CANADA - CANADIAN MILITARY HERTIAGE PROJECT
Find Canadian ancestors in in free searchable military databases for each war and rebellion Canada has been involved in.
CANADA - SERVICE FILES WW1
Search: Personal Service Files of the First World War, 1914-1918 – CEF
CANADA - VETERANS AFFAIRS - REMEMBRANCE
The site contains the history of Canadians Arm Forces during world war conflicts, honour walls and rolls, memorials, diaries, stories, heroes remember, education and much more.
CANADA - WWI TRENCH MAPS AND AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS
McMaster University Library Digital Archives has three collections held under the heading of World War, 1914-1918, Trench maps and aerial photographs. These are Aerial photos,Original Collection; Peter Chasseaud Collection and Trench maps,Original Collection.
CANADIAN - VIRTUAL WAR MEMORIAL
This is a registry of the more than 118,000 Canadians and Newfoundlanders who have given their lives serving Canada or the United Kingdom. It was established to allow all Canadians the opportunity to honour and remember their sacrifices.
COMMONWEALTH COUNTRIES - COMMONWEALTH WAR GRAVES COMMISSION
Commemorating the 1,700,000 men and women of the Commonwealth forces who died in the two world wars. The Register records details of Commonwealth war dead so that graves or names on memorials can be located.
ENGLAND - BATTLESHIPS CRUISERS
One of the internet's largest naval history sites. Search the site to find lists of all the world's navy ships from the nineteenth century to the present day, with photos, histories and paintings on many of the ships.
ENGLAND - BLETCHLEY PARK ROLL OF HONOUR
The Bletchley Park Roll of Honour lists all those believed to have worked in signals intelligence during World War Two, at Bletchley Park and other locations.
ENGLAND - BRITISH ARMY IN FIRST WORLD WAR
The Long, Long Trail will be helpful for anyone wishing to research a man or woman who served with the British Army during the First World War.
ENGLAND - BRITISH MILITARY LISTS
Details of officers who served in the British Army, Navy and Air Force in the First and Second World Wars.
ENGLAND - FIND A SOLDIERS WILL
Search for the will of a soldier who died while serving in the British armed forces between 1850 and 1986.
ENGLAND - FLEET AIR ARM ARCHIVE
The site is dedicated to the men and women who served in and with the Fleet Air Arm in the Second World War, and focus on the Fleet Air Arm in the UK and Commonwealth, this portway to the world of naval aviation around the world between 1939 and 1945 contains over 1000 pages and covers all operational naval air squadrons, aircraft and ships used by the FAA in the war.
ENGLAND - GREATER MANCHESTER BLITZ VICTIMS
The website lists 1,410 civilians from the Greater Manchester District known to have been killed during the various air raids of WWII. This figure includes the 44 unidentified bodies buried in the three Greater Manchester Communal Civilian Graves in:- Stretford Cemetery (17); Manchester (Southern) Cemetery (14) and Salford (Agecroft) Cemetery (13). "Blitz" being a generic title and includes ALL civilian deaths from the "Manchester Blitz" of Christmas 1940, the spasmodic bombing raids, before and after, up to and including the two V1 Flying Bomb incidents of Christmas 1944.
ENGLAND - IMPERIAL WAR MUSEUM
IWM is unique in its coverage of conflicts, especially those involving Britain and the Commonwealth, from the First World War to the present day. We seek to provide for, and to encourage, the study and understanding of the history of modern war and 'wartime experience'. We are proud to be regarded as essential sights of London, Cambridgeshire and Greater Manchester.
ENGLAND - NATIONAL ARMY MUSEUM - FAMILY HISTORY
The National Army Museum webpage has links and pdf files for researching military careers of service men in the British army.
ENGLAND - NAVAL AND MILITARY ARCHIVE
The Naval and Military Archive has computerised and index various casualty lists, medal rolls and war diaries, you are now able to engage with your ancestors' military past. (Pay Site)
ENGLAND - NORTH EAST WAR MEMORIALS PROJECT
NEWMP aims to cover every War Memorial located in Northumberland, Newcastle-on-Tyne and County Durham in England as defined by the Post 1974 boundaries.
ENGLAND - RAILWAYS AND THE FIRST WORLD WAR
The National Railway Museum has compiled a listing of over 20,000 railway employees who died in WW1. It has been compiled from information in their archive and library collections (such as railway staff magazines) and the Commonwealth War Graves Commission.
ENGLAND - RED CROSS - FIRST WORLD WAR VOLUNTEERS
Search for your family’s personnel records, and discover what Red Cross volunteers were doing in your local area 100 years ago. The personnel records for surnames starting with A through to V are currently available. Volunteers are updating the site with more names every few weeks.
ENGLAND - ROYAL NAVY HISTORY NET.
If you have an ancestor who served with the Royal Navy during WW1. The site includes details of the Royal Navy Log Books of the WW1 era has 350,000 pages transcribed and The Ships Histories, a Citizen History Project.There is also a wealth of other information on this site pertaining to WW1 including Casualty Lists, Royal Navy Despatches and Royal Navy Honours and Gallantry Awards. Also has other wars on website.
ENGLAND - SOMERSET REMEMBERS THE FIRST WORLD WAR
Share your stories, photographs and research of your Somerset soldiers to Somerset’s archive of the First World War. Explore the impact of the First World War on Somerset through content generated by other users.
ENGLAND - THE BOMB SIGHT PROJECT
The Bomb Sight project is mapping the London WW2 bomb census between 7/10/1940 and 06/06/1941. Previously available only by viewing in the Reading Room at The National Archives, Bomb Sight is making the maps available to citizen researchers, academics and students. They will be able to explore where the bombs fell and to discover memories and photographs from the period.
ENGLAND - THE LONG LONG TRAIL
The British Army in the Great War, 1914-1918- All about the soldiers, units, regiments and battles of the British Army of the First World War, and how to research and understand them.
ENGLAND - THE SOLDIERS IN LATER MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
The online muster roll database currently holds just under 94,962 service records. These are taken from muster rolls, housed in The National Archives (TNA), for the years 1369 - 1453.
ENGLAND - WAR MEMORIAL ARCHIVE
Free searchable database of the 60,000 war memorials. Information includes the location, type, inscription and historical details of memorials. It does not currently include a names search for those named on memorials, although work is underway to make available online a searchable database of First World War names on war memorials on the website.
ENGLAND - WESTERN FRONT ASSOCIATION (WFA)
The object of the Association is to educate the public in the history of The Great War with particular reference to the Western Front.
ENGLAND - WORLD WAR ONE
Supported by over 500 historical sources from across Europe, this resource examines key themes in the history of World War One. Explore a wealth of original source material, over 50 newly-commissioned articles written by historians, teachers' notes and more to discover how war affected people on different sides of the conflict.
ENGLAND - WORLD WAR ONE PHOTOS
The database has thousands of identified photos, obituaries and short service records of First World War officers, soldiers, sailors, nurses, airmen and civilian workers available. Photographed directly from original Great War Rolls of Honour to ensure the best possible quality, including De Ruvigny's Roll Of Honour and The Sphere. Search the database by surname or regiment. Now over 46,000 photos, obituaries and short records of service available to download many free.
ENGLAND - WORLD WAR I 1914-1918 A GUIDE TO BATTLEFIELDS AND HISTORY
A Guide to WW1 Battlefields and History of the First World War website provides an overview of the First World War battlefields on the Western Front by showing you where they are and what you can see there today.
ENGLAND AND COMMONWEALTH - FACES OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR
Faces of the First World War - Imperial War Museum Centenary project launched on Photographs from the Museum's collection are being uploaded to the photo-sharing site Flickr in a set called 'Faces of the First World War'
ENGLAND AND COMMONWEALTH - MARITIME MEMORIAL TRUST
This site is a memorial to all who lost their lives at sea during the conflicts of the 20th century, Merchant Navy, Naval, Army and civilians.
ENGLAND AND COMMONWEALTH - PRISONERS OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR ICRC ARCHIVES
Red Cross (ICRC) The International Committee of the Red Cross Archives 1914-1918: during the First World War, 10 million people, servicemen or civilians, were captured and sent to detention camps.
ENGLAND AND COMMONWEALTH - THE WAR GRAVES PHOTOGRAPHIC PROJECT
The War Graves Photographic Project. Now working as a joint venture with the Commonwealth War Graves Commission, and assisting the Office of Australian War Graves, Canadian Veterans Affairs and the New Zealand Ministry of Heritage and Culture. The project enables families, scholars and researchers to obtain, via the CWGC or TWGPP websites, a copy of the photograph of a grave or memorial which for many is impossible to visit due to the location. Free searchable database.
EUROPE - YAD VASHEM - HOLOCAUST MARTYRS' AND HEROS'
As the Jewish people’s living memorial to the Holocaust, Yad Vashem safeguards the memory of the past and imparts its meaning for future generations. Established in 1953, as the world centre for documentation, research, education and commemoration of the Holocaust, Yad Vashem is today a dynamic and vital place of intergenerational and international encounter.
GERMANY - INTERNATIONAL TRACING SERVICE
The ITS organization, based in Germany, has a unbelievable amount of records on victims and survivors of Nazi persecutions in their archives.
IRELAND - MILITARY ARCHIVES
The Military Archives has been the official place of deposit for records of the Defence Forces, the Department of Defence and the Army Pensions Board since 1990. Some of the earliest collections preserved by the Historical Section include the Collins Papers, Civil War Operations and Intelligence files and Captured Documents (Civil War up to 1925), which continue to be made available today.
IRELAND - THE IRISH WAR MEMORIALS PROJECT
The Irish War Memorials Project is a developing inventory of war memorials in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. It includes photographs of each memorial, and details of the sites. With each memorial there is a PDF file with a transcription of the text on the memorial and, in many cases, further information about those whose names appear on them.
NEW ZEALAND - NEW ZEALAND ANZACS IN THE GREAT WAR 1914-1918
The project is developing a database to record information on those from New Zealand who served overseas in the New Zealand Expeditionary Force in the Great War, 1914-1918.
NEW ZEALAND - NEW ZEALAND DEFENCE FORCE WWI
Archives New Zealand holds the New Zealand Defence Force (NZDF) Personnel Files for all known New Zealanders who served in the First World War. Because the original files are restricted for preservation reasons, we have digitised the collection (over 140,000 individual records). These digital versions are open to view and download.
NEW ZEALAND SOLDIERS - FIRST WORLD WAR
A guide to researching the 100,000 New Zealand men who signed up to fight for King and Country in the First World War.
SCOTLAND - NATIONAL WAR MEMORIAL
Three databases of Scotland’s War dead taken from the Rolls of Honour on display in the Scottish National War Memorial. Covers 1914-1918; 1939-1945 and 1945-2006.
SCOTLAND - SCOTTISH MILITARY RESEARCH GROUP
The Group are dedicated volunteers who have worked on the Scottish War Memorials Project since 2006, and the Scottish War Graves Project since 2007. Group members have transcribed the Glasgow Roll of Honour 1914-1918 and 1939-45. The war graves and memorials covers both Scotland and overseas.
SOUTH AFRICA - ANGLO BOER WAR MUSEUM
The War Museum in Bloemfontein provides an understanding of the background against which the Anglo-Boer War took place through its unique art collection, dioramas and exhibitions. Search the databases for your Boer War ancestors.The site offers a glimpse into the life and suffering endured in the concentration and prisoner-of-war camps.
SOUTH AFRICA - SOUTH AFRICA WAR GRAVES PROJECT
The goal of the South Africa War Graves Project is to archive photographs of every single South African & Rhodesian war grave from the 2nd Anglo-Boer War, Bambatha Rebellion, WW1, Rand Revolt, WW2, Korea, Freedom Struggle, Angola-Border War, Non World War and Police to present day. These photos will either be in the format of a picture of a headstone or a name on a memorial.
UNITED STATES - PHOTOGRAMMAR
Photogrammar is a web-based platform for organizing, searching, and visualizing the 170,000 photographs from 1935 to 1945 created by the United States Farm Security Administration and Office of War Information (FSA-OWI).
WORLD - DISPLACE PERSONS' CAMPS
Search this website for your ancestors in displace persons' camps.The DPC site has a table of contents with links to all displace camps around the world after WWII.